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The double quotation mark is identical to the ditto mark in English-language usage. It is also similar to—and often used to represent—the double prime symbol. These all serve different purposes. Other languages have similar conventions to English, but use different symbols or different placement.

Contemporary Bulgarian employs em dash or quotation horizontal bar followed by a space characer at the beginning of each direct-speech segment by a different character in order to mark direct speech in prose and in most journalistic question and answer interviews ; in such cases, the use of standard quotation marks is left for in-text citations or to mark the names of institutions, companies, and sometimes also brand or model names.

Air quotes are also widely used in face-to-face communication in contemporary Bulgarian but usually resemble ” The standard form in the preceding table is taught in schools and used in handwriting. Neutral straight quotation marks, ” and ‘ , are used widely, especially in texts typed on computers and on websites.

Although not generally common in the Netherlands any more, double angle guillemet quotation marks are still sometimes used in Belgium. Some fonts, e. Verdana , were not designed with the flexibility to use an English left quote as a German right quote.

Such fonts are therefore typographically incompatible with this German usage. Double quotes are standard for denoting speech in German. Double right-pointing angular quotes, »…» , can also be used. Alternatively, an en-dash followed by a non-breaking space can be used to denote the beginning of quoted speech, in which case the end of the quotation is not specifically denoted see section Quotation dash below.

A line-break should not be allowed between the en-dash and the first word of the quotation. French uses angle quotation marks guillemets , or duck-foot quotes , adding a ‘quarter-em space’ [a] within the quotes. Many people now use the non-breaking space , because the difference between a non-breaking space and a four-per-em is virtually imperceptible but also because the Unicode quarter-em space is breakable , and the quarter-em glyph is omitted from many fonts.

Even more commonly, many people just put a normal breaking space between the quotation marks because the non-breaking space cannot be accessed easily from the keyboard; furthermore, many are simply not aware of this typographical refinement.

Using the wrong type of space often results in a quotation mark appearing alone at the beginning of a line, since the quotation mark is treated as an independent word. This parallels normal usage in other languages, e. They were different from English quotes because they were standing like today’s guillemets on the baseline like lowercase letters , and not above it like apostrophes and English quotation marks or hanging down from it like commas. At the beginning of the nineteenth century, this shape evolved to look like small parentheses.

The angle shape appeared later to increase the distinction and avoid confusions with apostrophes, commas and parentheses in handwritten manuscripts submitted to publishers.

Also there was not necessarily any distinction of shape between the opening and closing guillemets, with both types pointing to the right like today’s French closing guillemets. They must be used with non-breaking spaces , preferably narrow, if available, i. Legacy support of narrow non-breakable spaces was done at rendering level only, without interoperability as provided by Unicode support. In old-style printed books, when quotations span multiple lines of text including multiple paragraphs , an additional closing quotation sign is traditionally used at the beginning of each line continuing a quotation; any right-pointing guillemet at the beginning of a line does not close the current quotation.

This convention has been consistently used since the beginning of the 19th century by most book printers, but is no longer in use today.

Such insertion of continuation quotation marks occurred even if there is a word hyphenation break. Given this feature has been obsoleted, there is no support for automatic insertion of these continuation guillemets in HTML or CSS, nor in word-processors. Old-style typesetting is emulated by breaking up the final layout with manual line breaks, and inserting the quotation marks at line start, much like pointy brackets before quoted plain text e-mail:.

Unlike English, French does not set off unquoted material within a quotation by using a second set of quotation marks. The French Imprimerie nationale cf. The use of English quotation marks is increasing in French and usually follows English rules, for instance in situations when the keyboard or the software context doesn’t allow the use of guillemets.

But the most frequent convention used in printed books for nested quotations is to style them in italics. Single quotation marks are much more rarely used, and multiple levels of quotations using the same marks is often considered confusing for readers:. Further, running speech does not use quotation marks beyond the first sentence, as changes in speaker are indicated by a dash, as opposed to the English use of closing and re-opening the quotation.

For other languages employing dashes, see section Quotation dash below. The dashes may be used entirely without quotation marks as well. In general, quotation marks are extended to encompass as much speech as possible, including not just nonverbal text such as “he said” as previously noted , but also as long as the conversion extends.

The quotation marks end at the last spoken text rather than extending to the end of paragraphs when the final part is not spoken.

A closing quotation mark, » , is added to the beginning of each new quoted paragraph. In Hungarian linguistic tradition the meaning of a word is signified by uniform unpaired apostrophe-shaped quotation marks:. A quotation dash is also used, and is predominant in belletristic literature. The PWN rules state:. In specific uses, guillemets also appear. Guillemet marks pointing inwards are used for highlights and in case a quotation occurs inside a quotation.

Guillemet marks pointing outwards are used for definitions mainly in scientific publications and dictionaries , as well as for enclosing spoken lines and indirect speech, especially in poetic texts. In Polish books and publications, this style for use of guillemets also known as »German quotes« is used almost exclusively. In addition to being standard for second level quotes, guillemet quotes are sometimes used as first level quotes in headings and titles but almost never in ordinary text in paragraphs.

Another style of quoting is to use an em-dash to open a quote; this is used almost exclusively to quote dialogues, and is virtually the only convention used in works of fiction. An en-dash is sometimes used in place of the em-dash , especially so in newspaper texts.

Neither the Portuguese language regulator nor the Brazilian prescribe what is the shape for quotation marks, they only prescribe when and how they should be used.

In Portugal , the angular quotation marks [53] [58] ex. They are the Latin tradition quotation marks, used normally by typographers. It is that also the chosen representation for displaying quotation marks in reference sources, [57] [75] [76] and it is also the chosen representation from some sites dedicated to the Portuguese Language.

The usage of curved quotation marks ex. This can be verified by the difference between a Portuguese keyboard which possesses a specific key for « and for » and a Brazilian keyboard.

The Portuguese-speaking African countries tend to follow Portugal’s conventions, not the Brazilian ones. In case of quoted material inside a quotation, rules and most noted style manuals prescribe the use of different kinds of quotation marks.

Pushkin wrote to Delvig: “Waiting for ‘Gypsies’, and publish at once. One of my acquaintances, a poet and literary critic, once jokingly said: ‘I prefer to read dictionaries than poems. The dictionary has the same words as in the poem, but is presented in a systematic way’. It’s a joke, but ‘reading dictionaries’ is not as amazing and bizarre as it may seem. Spanish uses angled quotation marks comillas latinas or angulares as well, but always without the spaces.

And, when quotations are nested in more levels than inner and outer quotation, the system is: [80]. Hispanic Americans often use them, owing to influence from the United States. Corner brackets are well-suited for Chinese , Japanese , and Korean languages which are written in both vertical and horizontal orientations. China, South Korea, and Japan all use corner brackets when writing vertically. Usage differs when writing horizontally:. White corner brackets are used to mark quote-within-quote segments in case corner brackets are used.

Another typographical style is to omit quotation marks for lines of dialogue, replacing them with an initial dash, as in lines from James Joyce’s Ulysses :. Alan Paton used this style in Cry, the Beloved Country and no quotation marks at all in some of his later work. Charles Frazier used this style for his novel Cold Mountain as well. Details for individual languages are given above. The dash is often combined with ordinary quotation marks. For example, in French, a guillemet may be used to initiate running speech, with a dash to indicate each change in speaker and a closing guillemet to mark the end of the quotation.

Dashes are also used in many modern English novels , especially those written in nonstandard dialects. Some examples include:. In Italian, Catalan, Portuguese, Spanish, Ukrainian, Russian, Polish, Bulgarian, Georgian, Romanian, Lithuanian and Hungarian, the reporting clause in the middle of a quotation is separated with two additional dashes also note that the initial quotation dash is followed by a single whitespace character as well as the fact that the additional quotation dashes for the middle main clause after the initial quotation dash are all with a single whitespace character on both of their sides :.

In Finnish , on the other hand, a second dash is added when the quote continues after a reporting clause: [82]. It may be the same length as an em-dash, which is often used instead. Some software will insert a line break after an em-dash, but not after a quotation dash. Both are displayed in the following table. Different typefaces , character encodings and computer languages use various encodings and glyphs for quotation marks.

Many systems, such as the personal computers of the s and early s, actually drew these ASCII quotes like closing quotes on-screen and in printouts, so text would appear like this approximately :. Using this character as the opening quote gave a typographic approximation of curved single quotes.

Nothing similar was available for the double quote, so many people resorted to using two single quotes for double quotes, which would look approximately like the following:. The typesetting application TeX uses this convention for input files. The following is an example of TeX input which yields proper curly quotation marks. The Unicode mapping for PostScript Standard Encoding preserves the typographic approximation convention by mapping its equivalent of ASCII grave and single-quote to the Unicode curly quotation mark characters.

In typewriter keyboards, the curved quotation marks were not implemented. Instead, to save space, the straight quotation marks were invented as a compromise.

Even in countries that did not use curved quotation marks, angular quotation marks were not implemented either [ citation needed ]. Computer keyboards followed the steps of typewriter keyboards. Most computer keyboards do not have specific keys for curved quotation marks or angled quotation marks.

This may also have to do with computer character sets:. In languages that use the angular « Historically, support for curved quotes was a problem in information technology, primarily because the widely used ASCII character set did not include a representation for them.

Since curved quotes are the typographically correct ones, [ citation needed ] word processors have traditionally offered curved quotes to users at minimum as available characters. Before Unicode was widely accepted and supported, this meant representing the curved quotes in whatever 8-bit encoding the software and underlying operating system was using. The character sets for Windows and Macintosh used two different pairs of values for curved quotes, while ISO historically the default character set for the Unixes and older Linux systems has no curved quotes, making cross-platform and -application compatibility difficult.

Performance by these “smart quotes” features was far from perfect overall variance potential by e. As many word processors including Microsoft Word and OpenOffice. The curved apostrophe is the same character as the closing single quote. An example of this error appears in the advertisements for the television show ‘Til Death. The two very different functions of this character can cause confusion, particularly in British styles, [g] in which single quotes are the standard primary.

Unicode support has since become the norm for operating systems. Thus, in at least some cases, transferring content containing curved quotes or any other non-ASCII characters from a word processor to another application or platform has been less troublesome, provided all steps in the process including the clipboard if applicable are Unicode-aware.

But there are still applications which still use the older character sets, or output data using them, and thus problems still occur. If the encoding of the document supports direct representation of the characters, they can be used, but doing so can cause difficulties if the document needs to be edited by someone who is using an editor that cannot support the encoding.

Both numeric and named references function correctly in almost every modern browser. While using numeric references can make a page more compatible with outdated browsers, using named references are safer for systems that handle multiple character encodings i. RSS aggregators and search results. In Windows file and folder names, the straight double quotation mark is prohibited, as it is a reserved character. The curved quotation marks, as well as the straight single quotation mark, are permitted.

This convention was later standardized in RFC , and was adopted subsequently by many email clients when automatically including quoted text from previous messages in plain text mode. Several other Unicode characters with quotation mark semantics lack the character property. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Punctuation mark. The symbol ” redirects here.

For other uses, see ” disambiguation. This article needs additional citations for verification. Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. English quotation marks. This article contains special characters.

Without proper rendering support , you may see question marks, boxes, or other symbols. Main article: Quotation marks in English. English quotes are more common on the second level. A rule in the house style guide recommends NBSP, though.

Also used in word processing, where NBSP is not justifying, though except in Word , according to this forum thread.

The French Imprimerie nationale recommends double angle quotes even on the second level. This section may be expanded with text translated from the corresponding article in Dutch. September Click [show] for important translation instructions. View a machine-translated version of the Dutch article. Machine translation like DeepL or Google Translate is a useful starting point for translations, but translators must revise errors as necessary and confirm that the translation is accurate, rather than simply copy-pasting machine-translated text into the English Wikipedia.

Do not translate text that appears unreliable or low-quality. If possible, verify the text with references provided in the foreign-language article. You must provide copyright attribution in the edit summary accompanying your translation by providing an interlanguage link to the source of your translation. A model attribution edit summary is Content in this edit is translated from the existing Dutch Wikipedia article at [[:nl:Aanhalingsteken]]; see its history for attribution.

For more guidance, see Wikipedia:Translation. Japanese Korean Traditional Chinese. This article contains content that is written like an advertisement.

Please help improve it by removing promotional content and inappropriate external links , and by adding encyclopedic content written from a neutral point of view. November Learn how and when to remove this template message. This article relies too much on references to primary sources. Please improve this by adding secondary or tertiary sources.

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